Basic Beliefs of Islam
Unlike the Five Pillars of Islam, of which there are five, there is no set number of basic beliefs. I have seen three, five and six, though all cover the same basic territory. I will try to cover all the bases here.
1) Monotheism: “There is no god but Allah.” The heart of Muhammad’s message was absolute monotheism. In Islam man is not to know God and become more like Him, but to learn God's will and become more obedient to His commands. Jesus may be a prophet of Allah, but there is no room for Jesus' deity in Islam.
2) Angels: Angels are real. Sinless and genderless, they are an important part of Islamic teaching.
3) Scripture: Muslims consider the Quran to be the revelation that Allah gave to mankind through Muhammad, his final prophet. This revelation came directly to Muhammad via the angel Gabriel and is the final word.
4) Prophets: Allah has sent many, many prophets into the world, with some mentioned by name in the Quran. In addition to Muhammad, some will be familiar to Jews and Christians: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, John the Baptist and Jesus.
5) Day of Judgment: Each individual will stand before the throne of Allah and be judged: paradise or hell. Judgment will be based on the individual's actions on earth, post-puberty. Needless to say, non-Muslims will not be going to paradise.
6) Some include the belief in Divine Predestination, which includes four things:
- Allah knows everything, what has happened and what will happen.
- Allah has recorded all these things.
- Whatever Allah wills, happens; what Allah does not will does not happen.
- Allah is the Creator of everything.